Botanic gardens have changed over time, as have their uses and social roles. They were initially developed in the 16th century for the study of medicinal plants, but between the 17th and 19th centuries, they expanded to Asia, America and Africa; they turned into active sites for the introduction, cultivation and dissemination of economically significant plants. The necessity for biodiversity protection and sustainable use gained prominence in the 20th century. Botanical gardens are faced with the challenge of addressing problems that go beyond the confines of the garden by making social and environmental responsibility a primary focus of their missions. Therefore, to a better understanding of the role of botanic gardens and to highlight the importance of biodiversity, this study focuses on the historical development of botanic gardens and their functions and the current conditions of botanic gardens in Türkiye.